CHAPTER - IONISATION RADIATION ACT: SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION
INDEX TO SUBSIDIARY LEGISLATION
[Currency mentioned in this regulation should be re-denominated as stipulated under S 4 of Re-denomination Act, 2012, read with S 29 of Bank of Zambia Act, 1996.]
Arrangement of Paragraphs
2. Fees and charges
[Regulations by the Minister]
SI 86 of 1992,
SI 46 of 1996.
These Regulations may be cited as the Ionizing Radiation (Fees) Regulations.
There shall be paid as set out in the Schedule, the fees and charges for the use of the services of the National Radiation Protection Service by members of the public and institutions.
[Am by Act 13 of 1994.]
[Sch subs by reg 2 of SI 46 of 1996.]
Personal dosimetry Service
(a) Individual per year
(b) Replacement of lost badge
(a) Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology
(b) Extra X-ray Machine
Inspection of Ionizing Radiation Facility Quality Control
(a) Institutional Licence Fees
(b) Amendment of Licence
Calibration of monitoring Equipment per item
Arrangement of Regulations
3. Competent Authority
4. Dose equivalent limits for workers
5. Dose limits of women of reproductive capacity
6. Limits of radionuclides
7. Planned special exposures
8. Personnel Monitoring
9. Dose equivalent limits for individual members of the public
10. Dose equivalent limits for students
11. Dose equivalent limits for teachers, instructors, etc.
12. Dose equivalent limits for medical personnel
13. Use of building for radiation purposes
14. Classification of areas
15. Warning signs for restricted and controlled areas
16. Application for licence
17. Type of licence
18. Permissible levels of radionuclides
19. IAEA Transport Regulations
20. Approval of transport
21. Storage in transit
22. Transfer of sources
23. Acknowledgement receipt of dispatch of radioactive material
24. Investigation of shipment of radioactive material
25. Radiation safety officer
26. Duties of radiation safety officer
29. Consumer products
30. Authority from Board
31. Approval to prevail
34. Offences and penalty
[Regulations by the Minister]
SI 171 of 1992
These Regulations may be cited as the Ionizing Radiation Protection Regulations.
(1) In these Regulations, unless the context otherwise requires:
"absorbed dose"means the amount of energy deposited by ionizing radiation per mass of the material;
"Board"means the Radiation Protection Board;
"dose equivalent"means product E of absorbed dose and the weighting factors;
"non-stochastic"means manifestation whose severity of effect varies with dose and for which a threshold dose does occur but below which the effects are not detectable at all;
"personal monitoring"means measurement of a dose with a film with a device such as a film badge, pocket ionizing chamber, or thermoluminescent dosimeters worn by an individual;
"radionuclide"means a radioactive substance characterized by its atomic nucleus;
"reproductive capacity"means the period in a woman commencing with the onset of menarche and ending with menopause;
(a) the manifestation whose probability of occurrence in a population exposed to ionizing radiation rather than severity in an affected individual, may be a direct function of dose;
(b) the heredity effect and some somatic effects such as carcinogenesis and the severity of stochastic effects if it occurs, shall be independent of the dose responsible for its induction;
"Sievert"means an international standard unit of measurement equal to the absorbed dose multiplied by a weighting factor, a distribution factor or any other modifying factor;
"threshold dose"means the minimum absorbed dose that will produce a detectable degree of any given effect;
"warning signs"means any of the radiation signs given in the Fifth Schedule; and
"workers"mean all persons potentially exposed to dangerous ionizing radiation or radioactive material as a result of their occupation.
(2) The dose equivalent limits specified in these Regulations:
(a) are based on the exposure received over a period of one year, without regard to the rate of dose accumulation, except in the case of production capacity in which the time distribution of the dose equivalent shall be taken into account;
(b) shall not include contribution from natural background radiation or from medical exposure of patients to ionizing radiation; and
(c) shall include the consideration of the stochastic and non-stochastic effects.
(3) The annual dose equivalent limits shall comprise the sum of the annual dose equivalent arising from external exposure due to external sources, ionizing radiation or internal exposure due to intake of radionuclides.
For the purpose of these Regulations, the competent authority shall be the Radiation Protection Board.
(1) The annual dose equivalent limits for workers shall be 0.5 Sv per year in any tissue except the lens of the eye whose limit shall be 0.15 Sv per year.
(2) The dose equivalent limits for workers in uniform exposed to ionizing radiation shall be 50 Sv per year.
(3) The effective dose equivalent for different tissues shall be computed by summing up the product on individual tissue doses and multiplying it with weighting factors set out in the First Schedule.
(4) The feet, ankles, skin and lens of the eye shall not be included in the computation of effective dose equivalent but shall be included in the relevant dose equivalent limits given in sub-regulation (1).
(5) The equivalent stochastic risk shall be estimated from the effective dose of the tissues of the body irradiated non-uniformly.
(6) The weighting factors for computation of the effective dose equivalent shall be as specified in the First Schedule.
(1) No person shall expose a woman of reproductive capacity to ionizing radiation without considering the pregnancy and the possibility of early unrecognised pregnancy.
(2) No person shall for a woman of reproductive capacity cause the embryo to receive more than 5 mSv of radiation during the first two months of pregnancy.
(3) No person shall expose a foetus in a pregnant woman to a dose exceeding 10 mSv.
(1) The contribution of internal exposure, without external exposure, to dose equivalent of annual limits of intake to radionuclides by workers shall not exceed the annual dose limit fixed in sub-regulation (2) and (3) of Regulation 3.
(2) The value of the annual limits of the intake for a single radionuclide and corresponding derived air concentrations shall be as set out in the Third Schedule.
(3) The sum of the weighted contribution of the various radionuclides to dose equivalent shall not exceed the limits set out in sub-regulation (2) and (3) of Regulation 4 where the intake exceeds one radionuclide during a working year.
(4) The provisions of sub-regulation (2) of Regulation 3 shall be observed where a worker is externally exposed to radionuclides.
(1) The planned special exposure for workers recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection shall apply to these regulations.
(2) Workers involved in planned special exposure shall be informed by the owner of the involved radiation facility about the nature of the risks and must consent to such exposure before under-taking the special operations.
(3) The dose equivalent received by planned special workers exposed under sub-regulation (2) of Regulation 3, shall be estimated and expert medical advice sought.
(1) The dose equivalent shall be assessed through personnel monitoring.
(2) The personnel monitoring under sub-regulation (1) shall be carried out at least once every two months.
(1) The dose equivalent limits for members of the public shall be one-tenth of that permitted for workers under Regulation 3.
(2) The dose equivalent limits for members of the public shall be taken into account when planning radiation facility.
The authorized dose equivalent limits for students in educational institutions shall be as set out in the Second Schedule.
The dose equivalent limit for teaching staff, instructors, technicians and laboratory assistants at all educational institutions shall be the same as the workers.
(1) Any medical personnel shall in relation to a patient in their care ensure that:
(a) unnecessary exposure is avoided;
(b) exposure is justifiable in terms of benefits that would not otherwise be available; and
(c) the dose actually administered is limited to the minimum benefit of the patient.
No person shall use a building to install or use irradiating devices or use or store any radioactive materials without a certificate of compliance issued under these regulations.
Any area where radioactive materials or irradiating devices are used or installed shall be clearly marked and classified as-
(a) Restricted Radiation Area-where procedures with radiation devices or radioactive materials are restricted to the average dose equivalent rates exceeding 0.25 mSV/hr;
(b) Controlled Radiation Area-where procedures with radiation devices or radioactive materials are restricted to dose equivalent rates of 2.5 mSv/hr or less; or
(c) Uncontrolled Radiation Area-place within confines of a radiation facility where the external radiation or radioactive communication are not detectable.
(1) The boundaries walls and doors of restricted and controlled areas referred to in Regulation 13 shall have warning signs.
(2) Access to restricted areas shall be under strict control of the Radiation Safety Officer.
(1) Any person who intends to use radioactive materials or devices shall apply to the Board for a licence.
(2) An application for a licence shall be in the form prescribed in the Fifth Schedule.
The types of licences to be issued under these regulations are set out in the Fourth Schedule.
The maximum permissible levels of radionuclides shall be as set out in the Third Schedule.
A person delivering radioactive materials to a transport carrier, or any person transporting radioactive materials within, through or into the country shall comply with the International Atomic Energy Agency's "Regulations for the Transport of Radioactive Materials; Safety Series No. 6, 1985, (hereinafter referred to as "IAEA Transport Regulations")."
The package and design for the transportation of radioactive materials, through or into the country shall be in accordance with the requirements of the IAEA Transport Regulations.
Any radioactive materials stored in transit shall be stored in accordance with the IAEA Transport Regulations and handled in transit in accordance with instructions issued by the Board.
Any transfer of radioactive materials shall, prior to the transfer, be reported to the Board in the prescribed form.
The person who sends the radioactive material shall ensure that an acknowledgement receipt of the dispatched radioactive material is received within thirty days.
(1) The person who sends the radioactive material shall investigate any shipment or part of a shipment, where acknowledgement is received within the period specified in Regulation 23 and shall immediately report to the Board.
(2) The shipment shall be monitored by the person who sends the radioactive material under sub-regulation (1) and shall prepare a report which shall be submitted to the Board within one week of completing the investigations.
The management shall appoint a radiation safety officer at each ionizing radiation facility.
The radiation safety officer shall, in addition to other duties assigned to him, have the following functions:
(a) monitor the purchase and stock levels, the safe use, handling, transport, and storage of radioactive materials;
(b) inspect and monitor the facility for radiation safety, assist in the training of all relevant aspects of radiation protection;
(c) ensure that all workers are monitored regularly with personal dosimetry badges and a record system kept of the doses received; and
(d) ensure that all reports are made available to the Board.
(1) The release of radioactive materials to the environment shall be reported to the Board prior to the release.
(2) The levels released shall be below the exemption limits set by the Board.
The user shall comply with the authorised release limit, by setting up an adequate programme for environmental monitoring and accounting of the radioactive substances released.
No processing, manufacturing, commercialisation, export, import, and disposal of consumer products containing radioactive materials shall be done without authority from the Minister of Health.
A person who holds a licence shall not-
(a) cease or suspend a licensed activity or the operation of licensed installation; or
(b) abandon or decommission an installation or waste management system without prior written approval or instruction of the Board.
Any approval or instruction issued under Regulation 29 shall prevail over a licence.
The Board may exempt any person from the provisions of any of these Regulations on the recommendations of the Radioisotope advisory Committee.
No person shall disclose any information unless authorised to do so under these Regulations.
Any person who contravenes any provision of these regulations shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to the penalties provided under the Act.
EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT LIMITS
1. Occupational Exposure Limits